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anime is a prominent animation style in Japanese movies. Early anime movies used a lot of references to Japanese culture because they were primarily made for the Japanese market. For instance, in Japan, people frequently interpret anime characters’ big eyes as complex “windows to the soul.” Although a large portion of the genre is directed toward kids, anime movies occasionally have mature themes and subject matter. With the founding of Mushi Productions in 1961 by Osamu Tezuka, a pioneer in contemporary manga, the dense, novelistic Japanese comic book form that heavily influenced anime’s look, modern animation, which first debuted in 1956, experienced long-lasting success. Anime like Princess Mononoke (1997) by Miyazaki Hayao is the modern version of the grand folk tales.


Anime is nearly exclusively hand-drawn. The ability to produce hand-drawn animation fast requires both skill and expertise. With roughly 200 animated TV series produced in Japan alone each year, there…

Critical scholars have called for increased vigilance against the emergence of digital platforms as a new hegemonic constellation of 21st-century capitalism, as well as the neoliberal governance and labour exploitation…